One of the most important organs in the human body is the brain. It is complex due to its location within the skull, it is also responsible for managing all activity related to the central nervous system.
They are located in the anterior and upper part of the skull , and it also floats in a fluid called cerebrospinal fluid that protects it at an immunological and physical level.
The brain is part of all vertebrate beings . Being made up of millions of neurons that are interconnected with each other, these connections are called dendrites and axons. In this way, all the functions carried out by the brain and also by the body can be regulated.
In this part of the system you can regulate functions such as breathing, sleeping, walking, eating and even thinking . The brain is able to control all body functions, so it is very important to understand how these processes are carried out.
What is the brain?
The brain is defined as the fundamental organ that is responsible for controlling irregular body and mental functions. In addition, it controls vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, sleep, and hunger . Also here it occurs in other essential processes for daily functioning such as reasoning and memory, this is also related to behavior and emotions .
The brain takes care of all these actions without people being aware of it. Unconsciously breathing or listening is regulated , and consciously activities such as walking, writing or singing are carried out. All of this happens spontaneously from the brain.
What are their characteristics?
There are several myths related to the physical characteristics and abilities that this organ really possesses. There are many questions that people usually ask themselves in relation to weight and size, also another common question is related to the number of neurons that make up the brain. The main features are described below:
- The cerebral cortex has an advanced level of complexity. That of the human being has a considerably larger size, it is compared with that of other species. This is folded so that folds are created in several sections forming grooves, this is the characteristic appearance that identifies the organ.
- The approximate weight of the human brain is calculated between 1.4 kilos and 1.5 kilos . The average volume of men’s is 1200 cm3, while that of women is 1100 cm3.
- The brain along with the spinal cord are covered by the meninges, these are membranes that help protect against blows.
- Regarding immunological protection , the cerebrospinal fluid is available. The brain floats inside the cranial cavity.
- It is estimated that the brain is made up of approximately 100 billion nerve cells, most of them are neurons and glial cells.
- On average, 25% of the total amount of blood that flows through the body is received by the brain when it is supplied by the heart.
- All cognitive functions , such as memory and learning, depend on functions performed by complex connections in the brain.
Parts and their functions
Not only do human beings have a brain, other vertebrate animal species have one that can be any size or shape. They are usually located in the central or upper part of the body . Its parts are described below:
- It has structures called cortical and subcortical , they are located in the lower part of the cerebral cortex.
- The lobes are divided into two hemispheres, the left and the right . In turn, these are divided into other areas which are: frontal lobe, parietal lobe, cingulate cortex, occipital lobe, temporal lobe and insular cortex. They are joined to both by a corpus callosum, by the thalamus, basal ganglia, an amygdala, the hippocampus and by mammillary bodies.
- The cerebellum is slightly larger than the brain , this is where the information related to movement control is developed. Some cognitive functions are also developed.
- The hypothalamus is a pituitary gland, also called the pituitary, which also works with the pineal gland. Both communicate through the release of hormones that are responsible for visceral functions such as body temperature, sexual response, food, and certain responses such as pleasure or aggressiveness.
- The pineal gland is very important because it helps in timing the release of the hormone melatonin. In this way you can regulate the states of sleep and wakefulness.
- The brainstem is located at the upper end of the spinal cord. It is made up of the medulla oblongata, the bridge of Varolio and the midbrain. This is where automatic functions related to heartbeat and blood pressure are controlled, as well as functions such as digestion, urination, and limbic movements.
There are multiple functions that this body regulates , some present a greater complexity in the development of the activities for which it is in charge. The main functions are described below:
- The control of vital functions consists of the regulation of respiration, temperature, heart rate, blood pressure and also food intake.
- The control of interpretive functions where information that is acquired through the senses is processed. Thus what is perceived through sight, touch, hearing, smell and taste; it is analyzed later.
- The control body movements and actions such as walking, speaking, writing or running.
- The control of mental processes that regulates emotions and behaviors . In addition, this is where all the process related to thought and reason occurs.
- The control of cognitive functions such as learning.
- All the functions that the brain performs depend on the connection generated between neurons . From the electromagnetic impulses and chemical substances, the brain begins to generate control over other organs.
- It is the main responsible for the management of emotions , thoughts, memory and language .
According to scientific studies based on experiments, it has been specified which activities are administered in each hemisphere . Both are connected by a corpus callosum made up of nerve fibers, each of which is responsible for processing sensory and motor information in the opposite part of the body.
Therefore, the right hemisphere will control the movement of muscles in the arms and legs on the left side. The same happens with the left hemisphere , this will take care of the musculature of the right part. Both receive sensory information from the contralateral part.
Why is your study important for psychology?
Since the beginning of psychology as a science, it has always been tried to clarify how the human brain really works. It is an enigma and one of the most complex creations of nature. From the time of Hippocrates to the most contemporary have proposed different theories, these have been benefited by technological advances for neuroscience, medicine, biology and psychology.
In part it has been possible to decipher certain mysteries related to the anatomy of this organ . There are still some unknowns that wait to be resolved with the eventual improvement of current methods and tools. At first it was believed that thought did not depend on brain activity, later it was found that people’s behavior arises from the external environment and the development of this organ.
Brain activity is made up of multiple processes that occur rapidly and almost imperceptibly . The brain could be described as a “computer”, it is capable of storing information and processing multiple formats of content that are perceived through the senses. It is the body to which more studies have been carried out, theories based on erroneous concepts have been proposed that later have been verified.
Alexa Clark specializes in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. She has experience in listening and welcoming in Individual Therapy and Couples Therapy. It meets demands such as generalized anxiety, professional, love and family conflicts, stress, depression, sexual dysfunction, grief, and adolescents from 15 years of age. Over the years, She felt the need to conduct the psychotherapy sessions with subtlety since She understands that the psychologist acts as a facilitator of self-understanding and self-acceptance, valuing each person's respect, uniqueness, and acceptance.