In psychology it has been possible to identify various types of behaviors that are characterized by expressing fear of negative behavior patterns These can be directly aimed at damaging personal integrity, but they can also be targeted toward multiple goals. People who feel alluded to will begin to feel that they are being harassed.

Harassment is designated as the set of patterns constituted by frequent behaviors that are based on criminal acts. These have an individual origin, since a person decides to start directing these damages towards a specific objective . So it is a situation in which a victim and a stalker are involved.

At first it can be difficult to successfully identify these types of situations. From the perspective of third persons could be harmless acts and may even go unnoticed. However, eventually the violence and the seriousness of the events increase in intensity. In most cases, the resolution of these events depends entirely on the victim reporting their accuser .

Statistically, bullying is one of the social problems with the highest number of records annually. It is a social problem that does not restrict age, gender, economic status and there are no geographical limitations. Globally, there are still statistics that show that there has been a spike in complaints of harassment. Next we are going to analyze this topic in greater depth.

What is bullying?

Harassment in psychology defines a set of behaviors that are characterized by annoying, persecuting and harassing one or more people. In itself this word refers to the action or conduct generated with the purpose of making another person uncomfortable. It can be a term applied in different fields and not only in psychology. For example, harassment is often spoken of in law when it comes to describing situations in which personal safety and the right to private property are being violated.

It has been possible to specify that harassment situations present a clear claim to abuse the power to limit or manipulate. For this, a hierarchical position is established in which the harassed person is obviously disadvantaged. The stalker will seek to pressure his victim and maintain a violent relationship constantly .

It can be done in different ways, the most common is that the perpetrator decides to persecute, insult, threaten, harass , devalue, make obscene innuendo, lie and even destroy personal property. In reality it is a complex situation that can manifest itself in so many ways that the victim could suffer long-term physical and mental damage as a consequence.

This situation is usually mentioned with the term from the English language called bullying . In most cases it refers to a type of harassment that happens within the school environment, it could take place in any educational institution; or that those involved are students.

It is possible to publicly identify when physical violence and humiliation turn out to be very evident . In addition, the victim begins to show clear signs of affectation of his emotional state and physical integrity. But bullying can also take place remotely, using technology through the internet or mobile telephony.

How are the types of harassment classified?

Because harassment can occur in any area, it is also considered that any individual can suffer it. The attacks are based on intimidating and violent acts that remain constant , then the victim is destabilized on a psychological, physical and social level. It is not only about emotional damage, but also material damage for which the consequences are multiple.

Considering the aforementioned factors, a classification has been made of the different types of harassment that have so far been identified. This typology has been divided taking into consideration some of the most outstanding characteristics of each case, in addition, the actions or resources used to carry out these actions are taken as a reference . What they are are mentioned below:

Bullying 

Bullying is also known as bullying. It basically consists of both physical and verbal abuse, which happens within the educational environment. This means that the victims are usually children and young people of different academic stages, ages and genders.

The reasons for this may be due to differences in social, economic or racial status. Various prejudices and stereotypes are applied as an excuse to carry out threats and intimidation, thus violating personal dignity and safety.

sexual harassment

Sexual harassment is characterized by intimidating and lewd behavior, which violates the psychological and physical stability of the victim. The main objective of this behavior is focused on satisfying the sexual needs of the aggressor . The dignity and self – esteem of those who suffer the consequences of these acts are undermined .

It turns out to be one of the most complex types, because it can happen in different environments and be combined with other types of harassment. For example, they can happen within the work environment, which is why it is used as a bullying tool . It not only allows you to achieve sexual favors, but also to climb the hierarchy to harass those who occupy a lower rank.

Workplace Harassment

Workplace or moral harassment is also known as mobbing . It is a situation where the victim receives continuous unjustified violent treatment , hostile acts are identified that will make the worker feel fear. The purpose is to destroy the victim’s relationship with other co-workers, it also involves permanent damage to the professional reputation of the affected person. In this way, dismissal or resignation could be achieved, the attacker could benefit in both cases.

Physical and verbal harassment

Both types of harassment manage to permanently hurt the victim, this is because eventually the intensity of the attacks increases. It also depends on how long it lasts and on whether the required corrective measures are applied to guarantee the psychological recovery of the affected person.

Both can harm both physical and mental health , but they can also violate the security of personal property; as well as affecting family or friends. This is because threats and attacks can occasionally have multiple targets.

In the case of physical harassment, this manifests itself through blows , destruction of material goods, shoves, cuts and even inappropriate gestures. Whereas in the case of verbal harassment, this is expressed through insults, threats, provocations , inappropriate comments, humiliations and other types of unpleasant verbalizations.

Cyberbullying

This is one of the new typologies that have joined the list. It is carried out through the use of new technologies that use the use of the internet service . It could be said that it is one of the most effective methods for bullies, this is because it causes greater damage; affecting not only personal life but also academic and work life.

Because the current way of life depends practically on the use of social networks and other similar platforms, bullies manage to limit the use of these resources so that the victim feels harassed. It is also important to mention that this medium facilitates the publication of images, videos or audios; that are made public and their content would permanently damage the reputation of the victim. In some cases these same files are adulterated to spread rumors .

For what reasons is it generated?

The reasons for harassment cases show some common factors, the relationship between harasser and victim can be close and even dependent. The behavior of a person who harasses can be motivated by emotional or personal deficiencies . Due to cognitive problems this type of behavior can develop, which somehow desperately seeks to cover these deficiencies.

Harassment can also be used to cover up an insecure personality , those who apply these methods will feel some satisfaction or even support from those who witness their actions. So one of many theories supposes that it is a method that allows to raise self-esteem by humiliating and ridiculing other people.

You also have to consider that victims are prone to these situations when you have personalities that are self demanding and that  seek acceptance from others. They are also the target of bullies because they can be influenced or manipulated, low self-esteem can also be a determining factor.

What can be done to fix it?

In cases of this type, it is difficult to determine the best way to find a solution that works for everyone involved. Due to the complexity of the facts, it is always ideal to have the help of medical professionals , as well as to notify the corresponding authorities.

To receive immediate assistance, you should call the emergency numbers or any other resource that allows you to establish direct communication . By alerting trained people to help, you are taking an important first step. Both family members as well as friends, and co-workers or neighbors; all can participate to help the victim .

The personnel who are in the police departments and in the offices of the prosecutors, they are prepared for these situations, they can go directly to the place where the events are taking place. The purpose is to apply the local laws that have been designed to deal with these types of cases. A protection order will be requested and other health services will be activated that will be integrated into a security plan.

Likewise, all encounters that take place with both the harasser and the victim must be documented and recorded. Evidence provided by potential witnesses should also be collected, all incident records that demonstrate harassment will be helpful. Ultimately, these resources will be used to prevent further harassment and limit contact between the people involved.

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Alexa Clark specializes in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. She has experience in listening and welcoming in Individual Therapy and Couples Therapy. It meets demands such as generalized anxiety, professional, love and family conflicts, stress, depression, sexual dysfunction, grief, and adolescents from 15 years of age. Over the years, She felt the need to conduct the psychotherapy sessions with subtlety since She understands that the psychologist acts as a facilitator of self-understanding and self-acceptance, valuing each person's respect, uniqueness, and acceptance.

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