Communication is a process of information exchange . Human beings use it to share experiences, ideas, desires, opinions and also feelings. The key to its operation is in the reciprocity of this relationship.

From the point of view of psychology , it is important to study how communication works in society. Understanding it in another way, this is a basic behavior, this is because an interaction is generated; which is made up of verbal and gestural sequences .

It not only works to inform, it is also used to persuade the decisions and actions of others. Communication is carried out on a daily basis, it is part of the establishment of affective and professional relationships . Maintaining close contact with other people is essential for human beings.

In order to communicate socially, each individual develops techniques that help them understand each other. Sometimes, it is necessary to make changes in behavior , but also incorporates strategic techniques that have been created according to how society has evolved.

What is communication?

Communication is defined as the exchange process in which a sender and a receiver intervene . message is transmitted using a channel that facilitates this action. This is a term that is widely used to refer to the transportation of something, from its point of origin to its destination.

Communication is part of the relationships of human beings, because in this way life is shared in society. It consists of several elements which are: sender, receiver, code , message, channel , noise, feedback and finally a context.

In psychology, communication is an activity that people perform consciously. The participation of two or more individuals will be sought, who share the management of the same system of norms or signs . These are basic components of the language , the exchange of data depends on it.

Etymologically, the word communication has its origin in the term used in Latin “communicare”, whose meaning is “to share or put in common”. This word defines exactly this phenomenon carried out by individuals living in the same group. Not only is it an activity carried out by people, animals and other living beings also maintain communication with their environment .

Features and examples

The communication process is made up of a series of characteristics that are outstanding. That is, several aspects are essential to be able to initiate this action in a much more effective way.

The first of these characteristics is the participation of the sender and the receiver . The message starts from a point of origin which is the sender, once it is sent it must be intercepted by the sender. The latter is in charge of its interpretation. Other relevant characteristics are mentioned below:

  • Communication is a dynamic process . Those who occupy the roles of sender and receiver are exchanged, which can be seen during conversations.
  • It is an essential part of coexistence and organization at the social level. Each person who is part of a community will use communication to be able to express themselves and transmit ideas or opinions. All of this happens practically at the same time.
  • The interaction between people and social groups also depends on the use of a common code .
  • It is characterized by consistency and respectful treatment between the interlocutors. Although this may not be the case in all cases.
  • It can be said that communication occurs unconsciously and it is impossible to avoid it. The communication process is continually taking place in different ways.
  • The process is made up of a dynamic sequence , each participant intervenes to a greater or lesser degree; according to the circumstances.
  • Sometimes there will be difficulties in transmission. The communication may show errors in its operation , it is related to the misinterpretation, lack of understanding or the imprecision of the message. These problems depend on the knowledge and training of both the sender and the receiver.

You also have to consider the existence of various types of communication . According to the means used and the purpose of this process. A series of particular aspects can be identified in each one, which is different. Here are some features:

  • Communication depends on skills such as empathy , negotiation, understanding, persuasion, and credibility.
  • Other qualities are added such as the ability to resolve conflicts and emotional validation .
  • Sometimes communication can be done with oneself ( interpersonal ), with the participation of people who exchange the roles of sender and receiver constantly (bilateral) and several people can also participate ( collective ).
  • Different types of channels are used , which depend on the senses. For this reason, there are audiovisual, digital, print, telephone channels and others.
  • The purpose of this process varies in each case. Communication can fulfill the task of organizing, educating, advertising , ordering and influencing, for example.

There are several examples that help to understand what are the functions that communication fulfills in psychological and social terms. Regarding the informative function, it is clearly expressed in the role in society played by television news and the written press .

Regarding the function of persuasion, communication is exercised through commercial or political advertising . For the training of people, the different processes used in educational environments help this function. We also find examples of communication for entertainment in the mass social media used today. In addition, from social networks, movies, music and series are also taken into account as well as others.

Classification of types of communication

According to the criteria used, a particular classification of the different types of communication can be established. Different aspects are identified regarding the basic scheme with which the communication process will be carried out.

This means that the sender and receiver roles may be different in each case. Furthermore, the message sent and the selected channel may also vary. The basic types of communication are described below :

  • The verbal communication is characterized by the use of a language composed of words can express. That is, the interaction between the sender and receiver is based on spoken expression.
  • The written communication , as its name suggests, depends on the use of signs or codes which are expressed in writing. This type of communication is extensive because alphabets, hieroglyphs, logos, signs and any other type of similar language can be used.
  • The nonverbal communication addresses unconscious aspects of human interaction. Here the voice, gestures or body movements are included, these depend on the use of the hands, the look and the postures.

It could be said that this is a more complex typology, this is because each person learns to interpret these communications automatically and involuntarily . Sometimes, it is appreciated that there are no coincidences in the meaning assigned to the same element.

Other types of communication are taken into account, one of the most outstanding is called mass communication . This is identified by using the new data transmission channels, which depend on the latest technologies of today. Audiovisual and digital media stand out. Other types of communication are described below:

  • The assertive communication is related to the ability to show signs of social competence. In this way, you can argue and plan based on your own ideas and opinions.
  • The intrapersonal communication is characterized by establishing contact with itself. People are more aware of their emotional state, you could say that it is a reflective process.
  • The interpersonal communication refers to creating a closer link with oneself and with others as a result. Compared to intrapersonal communication, in this case there is an intimate communication that does not necessarily allow to establish a connection with the outside world if it is so decided.
  • The paralinguistic communication combines several elements. In addition to the linguistic, non-verbal cues are taken as reference. Thus it is contextualized and varied interpretations of the same information are suggested.

What are its functions and its importance? 

Communication is a process in which several basic functions are distinguished. For different reasons, people can establish communicative relationships, depending on the objective to be achieved, methodologies that are adapted to the circumstances will be used. The five main functions are described below :

  • The informational function is carried out in an objective manner. The data that is shared is based on previous research or the use of verifiable references .
  • The persuasive function is basically to convince the recipient. You can even modify decisions and actions to meet a specific purpose.
  • The training function consists of transmitting ideas that help educate or expand the knowledge of the recipient. Data is shared that turns out to be novel, and that can be included in the belief system.
  • The function of entertainment depends on sharing messages whose content guarantees the enjoyment of all participants.
  • The Assertive communication allows to express a simple, clear and timely proposals or ideas from the issuer. These same needs are also taken into consideration in the receiver.

How to observe communication plays an essential role in the establishment of social relationships. In this way, people can inform themselves and inform each other by sharing experiences , knowledge, opinions and also feelings. People will be able to meet each objective by transmitting their ideas seeking the understanding and understanding of other people.

The learning and teaching process depends entirely on communication. For this reason, people acquire skills of this type that provide them with multiple advantages. Any human relationship is achieved by this means, it is considered to be an essential tool for the survival of all living beings.

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Alexa Clark specializes in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. She has experience in listening and welcoming in Individual Therapy and Couples Therapy. It meets demands such as generalized anxiety, professional, love and family conflicts, stress, depression, sexual dysfunction, grief, and adolescents from 15 years of age. Over the years, She felt the need to conduct the psychotherapy sessions with subtlety since She understands that the psychologist acts as a facilitator of self-understanding and self-acceptance, valuing each person's respect, uniqueness, and acceptance.

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