Psychology is an academic discipline which is responsible for conducting analysis and studies in relation to human behavior . Through the use of different techniques, it is about focusing attention on the different mental processes. In this way, psychology proposes different theories that try to explain how social groups and the individuals that belong to them work.
Psychology studies the human mind from different perspectives. The methodologies applied are close to some sciences such as biology and chemistry, which is why it can be considered as a science in itself although it has its own methods. Psychology is mainly considered a social science, since it focuses its efforts on studying how the different processes of attention, learning, perception, motivation and emotions work.
What is psychology?
Psychology uses the use of information with systematically organized scientific methods . It is a professional practice, which tries to find connections between interpersonal relationships and the biochemical functioning of the brain. At present, different types of academic research are being developed that try to innovate in the clinical practice of this profession.
It is important to establish what the differences are between psychology and psychiatry. They differ in that psychiatry is a branch of medicine, which focuses on analyzing the biochemical behavior of the brain . Therefore, it does not contemplate the study of emotional content and experiences. Neither practices such as psychoanalysis or therapeutic methods are carried out, their function is to interpret the human mind taking into account physiological factors.
Psychology as a science has its origins from the 18th century. It begins to be practiced as an empirical philosophical doctrine , it is about understanding human behavior through the use of stimuli; of which direct biological responses are expected. At that time it was a science whose name was psychophysiology, it was the first to establish a theory that is combined with practice.
The first time psychology was practiced in a formal way was in the experimental psychology laboratory of the University of Leipzig, in Germany during the year 1879. From that moment on, various theories and practices began to emerge that try to explain how it works. the human mind.
Characteristics of psychology as a science
The main objective of psychology is to understand the processes of the human mind. For this, different methodologies and approaches are used , which are adapted to each of the specific objectives that are being addressed, such as the processes of thought, learning and consciousness.
- It focuses on trying to solve mental and emotional pathologies , perfecting the different techniques and tools
- You can specify in a better way what is the functioning of the psychic activity.
- He is able to identify the factors involved in complex processes such as behavior, information storage, motivation, the process of developing ideas and the transmission of information.
- It uses scientific methods , starting from hypotheses and applies procedures that conform to these ideas using truthful data.
- It is a methodical science that uses procedures to clarify information from an objective perspective.
- It is systematic , since it orders said information establishing a great variety of theories, these later are verifiable due to the fact that there is real evidence.
- It combines theory with practice to be able to describe and explain psychic and behavioral phenomena .
- Predicts and controls phenomena, through the application of procedures of different kinds.
- It uses drugs as well as therapeutic techniques for its treatments.
Classification of branches of psychology
Psychology as a science has begun to be more diverse according to the different fields in which it is applied. The different branches of psychology are described below , each of them have their own characteristics that make them easily identified:
It is one of the most diverse classifications because other categories belong to it. Forensic psychology is often applied in the field of justice to find explanations for the causes in criminal situations such as homicides.
Mainly two groups are identified which are: basic psychology and cognitive psychology .
Basic psychology focuses its studies in the biological and social fields . For this, all the information related to the basic thought processes is collected.
It is the one that tries to explain how mental processes work. Each of them is generated to perform different actions such as language , memory, perception and thought along with experience.
Psychology of Learning
This classification is characterized by studying each of the adaptation and change processes that take place permanently in the brain. This type of psychology tries to explain how the learning process is generated in the human being.
It studies each of the stages of the growth of the human brain , it also analyzes how the human psyche develops in the course of life. In this way, it is established in a differentiated way, what are the characteristics of each of the stages from infancy to old age.
This classification of psychology studies creativity and artistic expression as exceptional phenomena of the human mind. According to applied theories, it is established that certain human activities are an extension of what happens in the mind.
Also called professional psychology , this is the most applied type of psychology. It is in charge of studying common specific problems in today’s society. Others also belong to this category, which are:
Clinical psychology treats patients who have mental and emotional conditions that have prevented them from maintaining normal functionality. In this way, it is about studying each case individually to apply techniques and therapies that fit the condition to be treated.
This category focuses its efforts on understanding how the learning process of each individual is. It is about analyzing how habits and social environments work, in which different situations are generated that promote the exchange of information for educational purposes.
He specializes in studying the most common emotional and mental problems during the early stages of human life. This study can extend into pre- adulthood .
Try to explain how human interactions work with an emphasis on the family and cultural environment. In this way, direct connections are established in the functioning of the psyche of each individual. It is usually associated with industrial psychology because they have similarities in relation to the study of work environments, these also influence mental processes.
Alexa Clark specializes in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. She has experience in listening and welcoming in Individual Therapy and Couples Therapy. It meets demands such as generalized anxiety, professional, love and family conflicts, stress, depression, sexual dysfunction, grief, and adolescents from 15 years of age. Over the years, She felt the need to conduct the psychotherapy sessions with subtlety since She understands that the psychologist acts as a facilitator of self-understanding and self-acceptance, valuing each person's respect, uniqueness, and acceptance.