The social components integrate aspects of the population that compose it. Making identifiable characteristics such as location, number of people, distribution by gender and age groups. Each of these characteristics is directly related to activities of common interest such as cultural or economic.

The topic of social components is usually studied in order to facilitate the understanding of how internal relationships are generated . That is why it is important to keep up-to-date information about possible changes that have occurred for various reasons.

To maintain a balance in the basic conditions for human life in terms of food, energy, housing and education; it means that it is required to understand how the components of a society interact . The development of the conditions that guarantee the well-being of future generations implies an administration and protection through sustainable actions.

What are the social components? 

The social components make up a structure or model that shows the characteristics of a population . A specific demographic space is determined, from there we begin to find detailed information about the distribution, quantity, location, growth, groups and composition. Consequently, there will be a better understanding of population mobility and migratory movements.

The composition of a group of people that make up a society is usually configured around a hierarchical organization . Taking into consideration that each society is different, it must be analyzed in depth how each of its parts fit together to work fluently.

Each component that helps to build a structure, will always infer in the society to which it belongs. The problems that affect this population can be solved in a feasible and rapid way, if a correct study of the interrelation of these aspects is carried out .

An adequate identification of the social components makes it possible to have a more complete vision about the available resources. Likewise, greater attention will be paid to those situations in common that hope to have a response.

The 7 types of social components

As previously explained, the social components together help create the structure on which a society is built. Each of them has a series of unique and identifiable characteristics, in turn positively or negatively influencing others. To understand each group the key is to investigate and analyze each one, 7 components are described below:

1 Social classes

Social classes identify groups, or also subgroups, of people who come together because of sharing similarities in economic or social characteristics. Each of the social strata is directly proportional to the distribution regime that governs that society.

The social stratification is a complex process that has multiple antecedents historical. They are established from 3 main groups of classes (high, medium and low), to which are added other intermediate categories (medium low or medium high).

The establishment of social classes is a clear example of the inequality of society . At present this is a phenomenon which is related to “metropollination”, this means that the classes with greater purchasing power tend to occupy urban centers. Instead, the lower classes will be located in geographic areas at risk, and that are on the fringes of the main settlements.

2 Urban distribution

Urban distribution refers to how a population is organized . It takes into account how access to the main public services will be planned, it also involves planning for economic activities. Usually the distribution revolves around the geographical territory, for this reason there is an urban and a rural population.

The distribution by territories also indicates what will be the living conditions that will guarantee well-being , that is, in terms of access to water, electricity, education, employment and health services. Being able to enjoy these amenities is usually on a smaller scale in territories designated as rural.

The migration of people from rural to urban areas has been increasing. As a result, there is a demographic deficit in cities that are overcrowded, while rural areas are sparsely inhabited.

The distribution is by far one of the most important characteristics to analyze, the tendency towards the preference for certain locations is usually related to the possibility of developing better living conditions. Therefore, people will prefer to move to areas where there are fewer difficulties to develop economic activities .

3 Culture

Culture is a social component that is identified by aspects such as the customs and beliefs of a certain group. You can see the sample of certain behaviors that are created and evolve, according to the values that govern a certain society. Likewise, it influences some institutions that continue to be relevant throughout history.

All cultural aspects determine what the way of life will be for the people who inhabit a space. One of them is religion, it will be made up of systems of behavior , beliefs and a code ; that indicate norms that shape collective thinking .

In every society a belief system with generalized ideas is maintained, which are accepted by the majority of people. This also supposes that myths and prejudices will be created , these characteristics will also be part of the identity of the people who belong to a certain group. Likewise, all historical, scientific and philosophical knowledge will be part of these beliefs; in turn they will shape behavior.

4 Family

The family is perhaps the most important and fundamental component of any society. Worldwide, the population is distributed in families that live with each other, for a better coexistence the formation of these groups is regulated under certain rules.

A good example of this type is found in China, the government of this nation decides to regulate the number of children that each family may have. The objective is to maintain total control over the population density , thus ensuring an adequate distribution of basic needs.

Population control is done with the implementation of measures related to family planning. Governments try to have plans of this type that have managed to regulate the number of births annually. One of the most common is the limitation of economic development , thus individuals will have a constant economic dependence due to the difficulty of accessing the labor sector.

5 Status 

The state defines the regulatory and organizing body of each group. The formal administration of a society within a country is in charge of a leader or an institution. Examples of this type are positions such as the presidency, deputies and senators. Each of them has the power to dictate rules in each of the powers of the state.

Also a state is characterized by having 3 elements that are essential. The first of them is the territory that defines a jurisdictional space where a right can be exercised. The second is that the population that defines all the human beings that are living in the territory where the state is located. Finally, the third is the government , this is a group of people, or institutions, whose responsibility is to decide and control the laws.

6 Population

The population is characterized by showing what the density and composition of each human group is like. Thus one has precise data related to age, gender and level; This is done according to the urban and rural population. Other categories are also created that take into account language, occupation or religion. 

Other criteria can be implemented following aspects such as economic and industrial or agricultural activities. For example, some studies have determined that the population by gender tends to have a proportion where there are more women.

There are several reasons why this happens, however the main one is that the life expectancy for the female gender is higher. However, it must be considered that in some societies infanticide is practiced against the female gender.

7 Individual 

Each person or individual is the minimum part that integrates each of the aforementioned components. This is the one that is most closely related to the characteristics of the population. That is, the study of the individual may make it possible to understand the daily routine, or the norms and values ​​that prevail in a society .


There are several characteristics that each of the social components have. The main one identifies that it is always about reaching certain objectives that benefit all its members, thus it is achieved that each one can contribute and also carry out their own functions.

The role that each individual plays will be determined by certain functions, these can be used in favor. But you also have to consider that some people will try to maintain their independence. In conclusion, in any social organization it can be observed that there is a network of relationships that shows a clear interdependence , each of its components will fulfill certain functions.

Other characteristics of the social components are described below:

  • The size of the population identifies the total number of people who are living in a specific area. This is an indicator that has a dynamic character because there are constant changes in the population. For example, industrialized nations show that their population decreases notably, whereas those with less industrialization will have a population increase.
  • Migration is a process characterized by the movement of people like this to other places. This is a social aspect that has a great impact on the migrants themselves and also on the spaces to which they arrive. The realization of these migratory movements is usually due to causes such as natural, social or circumstantial events. For example, there are natural catastrophes and also war conflicts.
  • Urbanization is a process in which planning is made for the organization of living spaces. It is taken as a reference to demographic and economic studies, this is how it is determined what advantages or problems would have to be faced.
  • Fertility and fecundity are directly related to the constant maintenance of a population quantity that is constant. On average, families are made up of 3 children, although the fertility rate has changed dramatically.
  • The mortality and life expectancy , which indicate the deaths that have occurred over a period of time are. This is an indicator that is related to the density of a population, it is also related to development and growth.
  • The linguistic distribution analyzes how the social relationship is according to the official language of each group. Other languages can be handled that may not be official but are widely used. It could also be considered as a cultural component because it is related to the identity of and history.

For example, in economics, the study of social components allows us to know which are the productive and marketing activities that best adapt to the circumstances. Together with data showing the population in numbers, the production volume will be adjusted.

Regarding the environment, the provision of information about social components will allow the provision of necessary help to improve the quality of life. All the elements required to guarantee adequate maintenance and use of natural resources will be analyzed.

Theories that explain how they work 

There are several theories that try to explain how these components work together. They are the characteristics of a population, for them the causes and effects that they could generate must be studied . There will be a greater understanding of how you can find the measures that will help solve them.

Various theories have been proposed that focus on aspects such as economics, demographics, and social conflict . They all have a different perspective, in turn contributing important thought-provoking ideas. What they are is described below:

  • The Malthusian theory is proposed by Thomas Robert Malthus, he was a clergyman and economist of English origin. The possibility of an uncontrolled increase in population due to global hunger is raised. When there are limitations on access to food, there will also be problems for food production.
  • The theory of demographic transition proposes that population growth is in response to how stability, growth and the development of opportunities are generated. Several phases must be passed, which ones are identified and then integrated into the social structure, it must be remembered that they are interrelated and interdependent.
  • The theory of the conflict can be based on different models which in turn propose solutions that do not always have a resolution. In other words, the establishment of plans that guarantee adequate development in turn implies the elaboration of a social system.
  • The exchange theory or phenomenology , suggests that during several decades changes with consecutive effects will be observed, these are as a consequence of certain decisions and actions.
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Alexa Clark specializes in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. She has experience in listening and welcoming in Individual Therapy and Couples Therapy. It meets demands such as generalized anxiety, professional, love and family conflicts, stress, depression, sexual dysfunction, grief, and adolescents from 15 years of age. Over the years, She felt the need to conduct the psychotherapy sessions with subtlety since She understands that the psychologist acts as a facilitator of self-understanding and self-acceptance, valuing each person's respect, uniqueness, and acceptance.

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