The word inclusion has its etymological origin in a Latin term which was “inclusio”, since its origins it has been used to designate the process of integration of individuals into social groups. Today it is very important because it is used when dealing with issues such as segregation or marginalization .

Both words define the situation that thousands of people are going through  in vulnerable social and economic conditions. That is to say, there is a population worldwide that does not have the same opportunities or possibilities in comparison as others. The rest of the inhabitants are individuals who have greater access to benefits that guarantee them a better quality of life.

What is inclusion?

Inclusion in psychology the term refers to a trend or attitude for allowing the people to be part of a group. The objective of this action is to provide a wide margin for the free participation of any individual. In this way, it is guaranteed that there is a contribution and a benefit that applies to everyone equally.

It is considered to be the best solution to social problems such as poverty, religious and ethnic segregation, illiteracy and phobias related to sexuality . Promote inclusion as one of the main social values by authorities, institutions and organizations; it will make it possible to correct all situations that promote exclusion.

Most of the countries have begun to implement political measures that take inclusion into consideration as a state policy . The search for social welfare depends largely on this decision, it has even been considered to include it as one of the main topics to be dealt with during educational training.

It is also a term of educational pedagogy, it states that all individuals have the ability to interact with other people; regardless of your race, origin, gender or religion For educators it is essential to promote positive values in children, acceptance and respect for others are some of them.

Diversity is considered to add positive value to coexistence in society. It allows that there are no limits regarding the appreciation of people for who they are, regardless of physical, cultural, psychological or economic characteristics; it is argued that everyone has access to the same rights.

What are the characteristics of this process? 

Inclusion was identified as a process in which various actions that are aimed at directing people to interact with others come together. These actions are able to correct problems related to exclusion both in the short and long term. People who belong to marginalized groups will observe how their rights and opportunities change significantly.

The approach presented by inclusion corresponds favorably to the context in which it is intended to apply. In society, greater diversity of people is observed, as well as individuality is maintained. For this actions are implemented to promote participation in the life family , education and employment . As a result, an invaluable cultural wealth is obtained, applicable to various aspects related to community life .

Other characteristics that allow to identify when inclusion actions are being applied to a group of people are described below. It is important to clarify that not all will be present, because social situations develop in different ways . They are as follows:

  • Inclusion allows for equal opportunities , there is a more respectful treatment for people; despite social differences.
  • People are independent and benefit from the inclusive treatment they are beginning to receive. This is possible because you avoid using labels that denigrate those you exclude.
  • There is equitable access to social services , everyone’s participation is valued so that their quality improves significantly.
  • Optimism and confidence are observed at a general level , this has a favorable impact on the improvement of interpersonal relationships. People show greater self-confidence and therefore there is learning that guarantees improved communication in the work and personal environment.
  • There is acceptance for those people who have some type of physical or sensory limitation . People who do not have the ability to make full use of their faculties, receive the help they require to integrate into society .
  • People’s needs and choices are being respected . The decision-making capacity remains a fundamental right, in this way it is possible to develop aspects of personal life freely.
  • Inclusion begins to be a topic of interest that is included in the early stages of the educational system . For this, programs are designed in which a wide diversity of more specific topics are discussed, it is about providing pertinent answers for the different pedagogical contexts.
  • Each government begins to implement norms where issues such as democracy, equality, freedom, justice and humanity among others are discussed. It is intended that everyone have the same opportunities and also the same values .
  • Inclusion does not necessarily seek that people have the same way of thinking or acting. It is not about the normalization of a way of life, it is about the recognition that each person has their own individual characteristics . Mutual respect and acceptance are encouraged.

Types and examples of social inclusion

As already described above, inclusion is a social activity that allows people to access various benefits . A more human coexistence develops, where all people are free to act and decide according to their own needs. But at the same time, other people are taken into account, a system is created where values ​​such as sharing and helping are essential.

Taking into consideration that it is an activity that can occur in different ways, inclusion can be classified by typologies . That is to say, according to the central theme of said actions, it could be identified to which needs it is trying to find answers. These are some of the inclusion types:

Social inclusion 

It is about allowing everyone to access the same services and activities . So family, friends and colleagues; they will have the same rights. Each person is free to decide what they want to have access to.

An example is when people with intellectual disabilities were taken into account . For many years in every society of every nation in the world, it was considered that these were people who did not have the capacity to integrate due to their limitations and basic autonomy.

These people were often placed in psychiatric institutions or homes to treat mental disorders . Sometimes they were treated as criminals and the possibility that they could receive some kind of education was not considered. However, from the nineteenth century more generally, measures were implemented that guaranteed to receive a formal education.

In each nation laws are discussed and formalized that establish the application of educational programs that are directed to these individuals. In case of presenting some type of physical deficiency, specialized centers were created with medical personnel capable of attending to your needs in a timely manner. Psychiatric disorders and mental retardation were also considered.

Labor inclusion 

It is about implementing measures that promote professional values, people will have the same opportunities to find jobs for which they are qualified. In the same way, it is about guaranteeing safety within the work area with their colleagues.

An example of labor inclusion is when support began to be shown so that people of the female gender could access the same labor rights as men. In the same way, they were measures that were applied to financial aid, advice, acquisition of materials and preparation of projects with specialists. Both men and women individually could develop their activities freely, but within what is established by law.

Family inclusion 

It is about implementing measures that help people develop and prepare for social situations. As a result, individuals capable of interacting with others under the same social and affective norms are obtained.

An example is related to the formation of interracial family units . Even in the middle of the last century, norms were in force that established that it was illegal to form a marriage or a family with a person who did not belong to the same racial group. There were several cases in which black and white people had to live outside the law to be able to live together as a family.

Inclusion could be achieved when a series of lawsuits were developed and with the enactment of new laws , which tried to expand the rights and possibilities of these individuals. It was possible to promote the idea that racism or social phobias are nothing more than impediments to being able to live in society in a peaceful way. .

School inclusion 

It is about fostering a broad and diverse educational experience , in which people will have their first social interactions. Thus, in the long term, each individual will be able to achieve the goals that they set for themselves.

An example of educational inclusion is found in the educational system model in which the sharing of schooling between genders , men and women was taken into consideration . In this way, a system was implemented where equal rights promoted the inclusion of both groups. This also had a positive impact on those with disabilities.

Another example of inclusive education relates to the restricted education system for men only. For several centuries a system was maintained in which elements related to a sexist language were included , educational textbooks represented an ideal model, where women had certain restrictions to access the educational and labor fields. Their role in society was limited to married life and at home, together they began to make changes in which a more equitable and equal treatment is observed.

What is its importance and evolution as part of the development of society? 

The importance of inclusion lies in providing the same opportunities to all people who belong to the same social group. It corresponds to the search for a coexistence in which everyone feels that they are benefited by their own actions and that of others.

It is important to recognize that equality and justice are some of the issues that must be addressed during educational development. When there are limitations to access this equality, it would not be offering the answers that most individuals want to obtain. The objective of educational systems is precisely to improve in those aspects in which there have been errors in which previous generations have incurred.

When it comes to exclusion, it is referring to that certain individuals are being rejected, which has repercussions in their personal lives. Habitually speaking of those sectors of society marked by economic and educational poverty , continuing to apply exclusion would be violating their personal security.

Gradually, if a society continues to implement exclusionary rules, it could become a chronic situation . To mitigate these circumstances, it is proposed to establish state regulations that offer the same educational and employment opportunities. A wide margin of benefits is obtained, among which is the normalization of the economy and a better quality of life.

While it is true that social assistance means being an important means that seeks to improve this situation, it is known that it is more important to receive an education that meets the current needs of that society. One of the most outstanding aspects to be developed is inclusion as a fundamental right , when people have the opportunity to educate themselves on these issues it will be a decisive action for the improvement of society itself.

Each country has implemented various laws of social integration , some of them are focused on groups of people who have both physical and mental limitations. When the integration of these individuals is sought, principles are being established that seek the normalization of coexistence . This supposes a great social and cultural advance, when it responds to the demands of the people within a system, the incorporation of all will be favored.

Inclusion is when rules are applied that seek flexibility and decentralization of certain activities, these mean being the obstacle that many must face in order to comply with their fundamental rights. Most of the norms that promote social inclusion are applied at the curricular level in terms of education and the labor system.

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Alexa Clark specializes in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. She has experience in listening and welcoming in Individual Therapy and Couples Therapy. It meets demands such as generalized anxiety, professional, love and family conflicts, stress, depression, sexual dysfunction, grief, and adolescents from 15 years of age. Over the years, She felt the need to conduct the psychotherapy sessions with subtlety since She understands that the psychologist acts as a facilitator of self-understanding and self-acceptance, valuing each person's respect, uniqueness, and acceptance.

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